Scientific name: Cynara scolymus L
Introduction and Botany
Artichoke is a perennial plant and one of the oldest medicinal plants in the world which have been cultivated for thousand years. This plant is native to southern Europe, the Mediterranean, northern Africa, and the Canary Islands. Artichoke had been consumed as a valuable food and had been used medicinally by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks.
In fact, this plant had been consumed by royal and rich people and was considered an aristocratic vegetable.
- Artichoke is a perennial plant with an average lifespan of 4 years
- The height of the plant reaches 1.5 to 2 meters.
- It has very large white or silver leaves without thorns or small sharp tine.
In the second year of growth, a strong flowering stem grows from the center of the crown leaves, which reaches a height of about 1.5.
- • The best climatic conditions for artichokes are areas with frost-free climates and cool summers.
- Immature buds of this plant are edible
- The leaves of the plant form the medicinal part.
How to use: Artichoke immature flower heads (capitol) is the edible part of this plant which contains edible and meat parts and they can be used as fresh, cooked, grilled, or processed and also as compote, canned food, jam, etc.
2-Properties and active ingredients:
Artichokes are rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. They are especially rich in folate and vitamins C and K, and also provide important minerals such as magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron.
The most important active ingredients: caffeic acid, cynarin, chlorogenic acid
3- Advantages of cultivation in Halikook farms
Use of sprinkler irrigation method and minimum use of chemical pesticides
4- Application in industry
- The extract of this plant is used for producing drugs that improve liver disease and lower blood cholesterol.
- Immature artichoke bud can be processed and is used in food industries such as compote, jam, etc.
Artichoke leaves and stems are rich in polyphenols and is used as an additive in the production of beverages, food and tea.
Artichoke flower extract can be used as a plant source of enzymes used to produce cheese in the dairy industry.
- • Plant waste can be used as biofuel.